Groundwater exploitation.

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The aim of this study was to assess the trends in ground water level in the in the Fatehabad district of Haryana, India.

Ground water is the world largest freshwater resource used in agriculture for irrigation. Ground water level in paddy cultivating region in Haryana is depleting very fast, threatening the future of agriculture productivity in one of the largest farming state in India. The latest data of the Central Ground Water Authority was tabled during the meeting, wherein it was revealed that out of the total 141 blocks in Haryana, 85 blocks (60% of the state’s geographical area) had reached the red category due to groundwater exploitation. In the year 2004, 55 blocks were under the red category, which means that 30 more blocks have come under the distressed category in a decade and a half. The aim of this study was to assess the trends in ground water level in the in the Fatehabad district of Haryana, India.

Rapid increase in area under rice-cultivation, electric sets for pumping deep water and decrease in cultivation of less water requirement crops like pearl millet are the possible reasons behind rapid decline of ground water. Fatehabad is one of the smallest district of the state Haryana and covers 5.69% area of the state. The district is bounded by 28°48’15” to 29°17’40” North latitude and 76°28’4” to 77°12’45” East longitude covering an area of 2490 sq km. It has divided into five blocks namely Tohana, Ratia, Bhuna, Bhattu Kalan and Fatehabad. In Ratia, shift in cropping pattern has changed from less water intensive crops i.e. pearl millet, and sorghum (Jowar in native Hindi language) to more water intensive crops like paddy. The area under paddy cultivation is increasing every year and to irrigate this area, the numbers of electric sets are increasing. Fertilizers consumption has also increased over the year to increase the yield.

District Block Village Underground Water Depth (In Mts)

District

Block

Village

Underground Water Depth (InMts)

Fatehabad

Ratia

Ladhuwas

40.96

Fatehabad

Ratia

Nangal

36.48

Fatehabad

Ratia

Lali

42.51

Fatehabad

Ratia

Hamzapur

33.87

Fatehabad

Ratia

Raipur

49.70

Fatehabad

Ratia

Ratakhera

22.47

Fatehabad

Ratia

Mirana

54.46

Fatehabad

Ratia

Babanpur

38.94

Fatehabad

Ratia

Lambha

37.33

 

Fatehabad

 

Ratia

Mohammadpur Sotar

 

41.09

Fatehabad

Ratia

Chinmon

38.94

Fatehabad

Ratia

Munshiwali

45.56

Fatehabad

Ratia

Kamana

41.73

Fatehabad

Ratia

Rojhanwali

48.44

Fatehabad

Ratia

Bhawani Khera

40.07

Fatehabad

Ratia

Bhundarwas

71.91


The following table shows the decreasing level of under ground water level in Fathabad district. In severely-stressed areas, unsustainable groundwater consumption affects groundwater availability and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. As we know groundwater extracrion in Haryana is maily to support the paddy-wheat cropping pattern. Private control over groundwater and highly-subsidised power supply led to excessive and insufficient use of groundwater. To overcome this situation reduce the irrigation demand, manage aquifer recharge, artificial recharge schemes would be counter the problem.

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